Understanding what each part of a tire does is very important. There are some parts that we don’t really need to worry about. For example, you will never need to know or care about a “gum strip” on the inside of a tire. So, let’s focus on the basics.
Tread – The tread is the part of a tire that contacts the road surface. The tread consist of a layer of rubber, compounded to suit the application purpose of the tire, and the thickness serves to protect the belt and carcass. The tread pattern serves the purpose of improving water drainage, providing traction, braking and cornering characteristics and long tread life.
Sidewall – The sidewall on each side of the tire, between the shoulder and the bead is the section that deflects most during running. The rubber coating serves to protect the carcass.
On the sidewall of every passenger-car and light-truck tire is an alphanumeric code that describes the dimensions of the tire. For most tires, this code will start with a “P”. Some may start with an “LT” to signify light truck. Some tires may have a “Max. Load” indication . When selecting new tires, it is important to make sure a tire’s load rating is at least a high as the tire you are replacing.
Shoulder – Provides continuous contact with the road while maneuvering. Shoulders wrap slightly over the inner and outer sidewall of a tire.
Bead – This is the section of the tire that makes seals the tire to the rim.
Tire Size and Rating
When talking about tire size, the measurements can be confusing. Once you read this, you will never wonder what P225/45R17 91V means. Using this particular tire as an example…
- “P” That is for passenger car.
- 225 – That is the width of the tread in millimeters
- 45 – This is known as the “aspect ratio”. This is a ratio of sidewall height to section width. The easy way to remember what this number means is, the higher the number the “taller” the tire.
- “R” Simply stands for “Radial” This has to do with the build of the tire. Almost all tires are “Radial”
- 17 this is the size of the rim.
- 91 This is the load rating of a tire, higher the number, the greater the load carrying capacity.
- V Speed rating, the higher the letter the faster the tire goes? Well, the faster it will be stable anyway.
Based on those numbers, that would be a pretty sporty tire. There are also a few numbers than indicate a tires performance. These numbers are usually a little harder to find.
Treadwear – This will be listed as a number. The higher the number, the longer the tire should last. This number is more a “theory” than anything. Tire manufacturers are not regulated in regard to this number. So, do not solely rely on this number when shopping for tires.
Traction – The tire’s ability to stop on wet pavement as measured under controlled conditions on asphalt and concrete test surfaces. As of 1997, the traction grades from highest to lowest are “AA”,”A”,”B” and “C”. A tire graded “AA” may have relatively better traction performance than a tire graded lower, based on straight-ahead braking tests. The grades do not take into consideration the cornering or turning performance of a tire.
Temperature – Tire’s resistance to heat and its ability to dissipate heat. The grades from highest to lowest are “A”,”B” and “C”. The grade “C” corresponds to the minimum performance required by federal safety standard. Therefore, the “A” tire is the coolest running, and even though the “C” tire runs hotter it does not mean it is unsafe.
Other Tire Information You Should Know
- The “legal life of a tire” is SIX years from the date of purchase, or the life of the “usable tread”. The “useable tread” is when the original tread is worn to the wear bars which is 2/32 of tread.
- Make sure that you check your tire pressure when the tires are cold. Temperature affects pressure. When the tires are hot(after driving) the pressure will be higher. You might let air out of the tire to set it to the correct pressure. This will result in your tires being under inflated once they are cool.
- Some tire manufacturers recommend rotating tires every 6000-8000 miles. Remember, you can’t rotate your tires too much.
- Michelin brand requires punctures to be repaired with a patch/plug. This fills the hole in the tire, and adds a patch on the inside of the tire. It really is a great way to repair a tire.
- If you have an all wheel drive (AWD, 4motion) make sure you reffer to your owners manual. Some AWD cars require replacing 4 tires. That means if you damage a tire, you might have to buy a full set!
We hope this information help in your knowledge of tires. If you have any questions, please let us know and we’ll be glad to help.